Altogether, the data was not conclusive. How and why were photographs, which represented a method of identification based on everyday experience and not on scientific principles (as Bertillon's anthropometric system claimed to be), integrated into the system of knowledge of the law-enforcement agencies6 ? Still, before and after the Bertillonage and the general introduction of fingerprinting70, standard photographic portraits remained an important instrument of detection and identification. He was an amateur photographer and took the pictures himself using a stereoscopic camera. See Jensen (1981, p. 333). What do you think of it? 24A similar development took place in France. Staatshaushalts-Abrechnung (1881, p. 107). : Unknown pickpockets - apprehended at Frankfurt/M., 1899, tech. It was intended as the written or oral equivalent to a photographic portrait supplemented by mentioning special marks like tattoos and scars. 7-9). However publishing images was not common. ⠀ But they are only the latest development in a long history of aerial photography. First, it was an experiment to record offenders and to gather knowledge on « dangerous » or formerly unknown types of offenders. The exhibition Watched! The history of police photography is commonly believed to begin in the 1850s when the first portraits of prisoners were taken. According to some criminologists, such as R. A. Reiss, professor of police science at Lausanne, and police officers, the mobile, international criminal especially demanded the standardisation of identification methods71. 12The idea of degrading photography by using it for police purposes was also expressed in a poem published in Punch in 185329. L'examen respectif de l'utilisation de la photographie par les institutions carcérales et par la police révèle que le discours général sur la photographie a une influence considérablement plus importante sur l'usage qui en est fait dans les prisons. 76-82) ; Pick (1989). There was a debate on if and how photography should be integrated into the new, scientific mode of policing. Police work in the last quarter of the nineteenth century focused more and more on the recognition of habitual criminals, see : Berlière (1996, p. 43). Freshness. May 25th 3 "Photography Strictly Not Allowed":Incredible India? He also mentioned the use of photography on « reward posters » and the problem of recognition. The police's use of photographic portraits relates strongly to changing attitudes about detection and strategies of fighting crime. They probably used police photographs just as they used their own pictures : as a memory aid in the broadest sense5. 42 Regener (1999, p. 149 f.). 20 Gasser, Meier, Wolfensberger (1998, pp. Responsible for the collection, however, was not the prison administration, which was not centralised, but the Metropolitan Police, which managed the Habitual Criminals Register. Interest in and experiments with photography in prisons and courts were exceptional and have to be analysed with due care. Equally, popular notions about photography among police officers were not obscured by criminological theories. - the very sun / Its soulless publishers degrade / The common constables to aid / Grave as the fact is, one might laugh / Almost, to see the photograph / So ignominiously applied / To serve as the Policeman's guide ». Taken together, these rebellious acts of insurgency and stealth uses of technology — CB radios, WATS lines, counterfeited documents, artful uses of postal services — anticipate the necessary tools of subversion in the face of ongoing police violence and contemporary state surveillance. Most criminologists, however, did not use portraits as evidence or arguments for their theoretical approaches. Surveillance is the covert observation of people, places and vehicles, which law enforcement agencies and private detectives use to investigate allegations of illegal behavior. They supplemented the practice of description with a technical aid. The portrait of Theodor Wilhelm Friedrich Beyer was published after he was sentenced to six months in prison. Aerial photographs of Auschwitz taken by the Allied Air Forces during World War II were first exposed in 1978 by Dino Brugioni and Robert Poirer, two aerial photo-analysts who worked for the CIA. And even less so because there were no comparable figures of successful identifications by non-photographic means. 10In the early 1850s, some governors of British prisons, too, experimented with photography. This was, perhaps, the first time of legal surveillance of something or anyone in the history. The photographic evidence used by Lombroso or Galton was ambiguous and as much open to criticism as the other conclusions of both criminologists14. Siemann, W., Guiseppe Mazzini in Württemberg ? - allowed the police to photograph apprehended people. Photographs confirmed a person's status as a criminal, but should not be taken to « make » somebody a criminal. 539-551. According to Roth (1997, pp. 35 The editor of the revised edition of 1914 commented, in a footnote, that Avé-Lallemant had no idea of criminal anthropology, which developed after the first edition was published. The organisation and aims of the police in general were restructured, culminating in the establishment of independent criminal police departments in the greater cities. It seems that the criminal police of Berlin initially avoided the mistakes made in Paris and London, and kept the number of records as low as possible, but this only delayed the collapse of the system. Through protest, disruption and damage to property that led to the arrest and imprisonment of over 1000 women, the Suffragettes’ impact on London life became a force to be reckoned with in the early years of the 20th century. In a book on the Exposition Universelle in Paris, Ernest Lacan, editor of La Lumière, wrote in 1856 that a photographic register would be of immense use to the police. Leuenberger points out that vagrants were the most important « clients » of the Swiss police force. 2The term « police photography » – often used in recent publications – is therefore misleading because the portraits taken between the 1840s and the 1860s, at prisons or at the request of a judge or public prosecutor, were not intended for the use of the police in the first place. Even after the Bertillonage was replaced by fingerprinting, photographic portraits taken according to Bertillon's rules remained in use. Feb 10, 2020 - Surveillance photograph of Frieda Graham: 1914 by . Sometimes portraits were distributed as a preventive measure when a person labelled dangerous was about to be released from jail38. Essays on photographies and histories, Basingstoke - London, Macmillan, 988, pp. This resulted in a tension between the social function of portrait photography as a proof of respectability and its administrative function, as a means of recording, identifying, and detecting. As a means of control they were double-edged, recording a momentary success but not guaranteeing identification in the future, and in many cases, simply proving a person's successful evasion of the agencies of law enforcement. 11This was neither an English nor a Swiss Sonderweg. When the British Home Office ordered the cessation of the Bertillonage and the introduction of fingerprints, the Chief Constable of the Staffordshire County Police wrote to the Home Office on 7 October 1902 asking if it is intended that application is no longer to be made for the photographs of prisoners. Bertillon's innovation marked a new approach towards « police photography », which combined scientific and practical experience. 27 Lacan, Photographie signalétique ou application de la photographie au signalement des libérés, La Lumière, 22 July 1854 ; La Lumière, 5 August 1854 ; Lacan, Esquisses photographiques à propos de l'exposition universelle et de la guerre d'Orient, Paris, Grassart, 1856, quoted from Phéline (1985, p. 17-19). Stolze, F., Ueber physiognomische Aufnahmen, Photographisches Wochenblatt, 1881, 7, p. 143 f. Tagg, J., A means of surveillance : The photograph as evidence in law, in Tagg, J., The Burden of Representation. It was a measure designed to build confidence in the ability of the criminal police to fight crime by legitimate means and it helped enhance the reputation of the criminal police which, in France for example, was not good62, and in Britain had yet to be built up. In a report to the Select Committee of the House of Lords on prison discipline in 186321, the head of Bristol Goal, Gardener, mentioned that he had begun to take photographs of prisoners in 185222. The Ministry of War immediately adopted the proposal for the army. From that moment on, prisoners were measured but not photographed64. You can choose up to 3 colors. In 1879 a photographic journal reported that only criminals of the « first and second class » were photographed. Neither did it depend exclusively on criminological theories. Odebrechts article was reprinted in the Austrian journal Photographische Correspondenz 2 (1865), pp. Later, this practice was extended to all offenders of whom files were established. 51 The letter was sent to the Préfets maritimes at Cherbourg, Brest, Lorient, Rochefort and Toulon 11 August 1871. ), Picturing Place : Photographs and the Construction of Imaginative Geographies [in print]. Ein Versuch über die Perspektivität des « praktischen Blicks », Archiv für Sozialgeschichte, 1992, 32, pp. 33 Ave-Lallemant (1867, esp. (Eds. May 25, 2013 - Surveillance photograph of two suffragette prisoners and a prison warden. ), The Contest of Meaning : Critical Histories of Photography, Cambridge (Mass.) Jahrhundert. Modern History Of Commercial Drones. 2-4, p. 52-53) published four earlier examples. Former CIA Chief of Disguise Breaks Down Cold War Spy Photography During the Cold War, surveillance in Moscow was the most difficult kind of surveillance that the US had encountered around the globe. Sep 10th. Cf. However, the plan seems to have been scaled down after a couple of years : the report on the Service Judiciaire for the year 1879/1880 gave a specification, limiting the practice to those offenders who had committed serious crimes or had ignored banishment53. Phillips S. S., Haworth-Booth, M., Squiers, C, Police Pictures : the Photograph as Evidence, San Francisco, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 1997. But what could most certainly not be classified as “fun” was the extraordinary level of violence meted out to these women, even in the early days of their campaign. Räcke, Die neueren Erscheinungen auf kriminal-anthropologischem Gebiete und ihre Bedeutung, Zeitschrift für die gesamte Strafrechtswissenschaft, 1894, 14, p. 339-353. 69 Bertillon (1895). Video surveillance has come a long way in the past 60 years. In 1871, prisons were instructed to photograph all inmates. An early Leica I with Elmar 50mm f/3.5 lens. From that moment on, the anthropometric system, with the use of photographs, was seen as a universal system of recording and identification. He has published Gesellschaft und Photographic Formen und Funktionen der Photographie in England und Deutschland 1839-1860, Opladen, Leske + Budrich, 1996 ; Die informelle Vernetzung politischer Polizei nach 1848, Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte, 1999 ; Images of Unity : Visualised Nations, in, Ryan J. R. / Schwartz, J. M. Photographic portraits were not a means of surveillance in the sense of a panopticon because the latter's main feature (in theory) was the possibility of controlling any prisoner at any time and to interfere immediately if an inmate behaved suspiciously. Public Record Office, London, HO 12/184/85459. March, march — many as one, Shoulder to shoulder and friend to friend, — The March of the Women, battle anthem of the WPSU. So, they invented the dubious art of surveillance photography. The investigation of emerging criminology has obscured the fact that Cesare Lombroso or Francis Galton used already existing images to support their arguments. 10 Allan Sekula (1989) was one of the first to point out this coincidence. In this article, some rules for taking judicial photographs were proposed : the portrait en face and en profile which must not be retouched. Session 1905/1906, Vol. 1989, pp. The figures offered an image of diligence and zeal in view of investigating the phenomenon and dimensions of crime. Hence, the criticism of the 1850s and 1860s of the use of portrait photography to identify and detect criminals is revealing (see below) because, as long as the photographs of criminals were taken by commercial photographers – which was common practice until the early 1890s –, there was very little to distinguish a portrait of a criminal from one of a respectable citizen. Verbrechen und Strafe, 1800-1914, Reinbek, Rowohlt, 1997. In France, the initiative to apply photography to legal purposes came from a prison governor as well. “On the one hand, the state considered them dangerous terrorists, but on the other it simply did not know what to do with them,” says Carole Tulloch, a curator at the National Archives, who has exhibited many recently accessed images from that time. It should also be kept in mind that, for the working classes around 1900, access to photography as a commodity was a recently acquired asset. 38 Hannoversches Polizeiblatt, (1859, p. 893 f). 1, p. 14 and 17-8). Museum of London 63-76. 33At the same time, police officers became more interested in photography. Vol. Fotoporträts der Polizei und Physiognomisierung des Kriminellen, Ethnologia Europaea, 1992, 22, pp. Foucault, M., Überwachen und Strafen. Since the invention of the camera, we’ve been watched. 100-105. 16Well into the third quarter of the nineteenth century, detection and apprehension were deemed a local problem to be solved by the local police force. Kleinere Mitteilungen - Polizei-Photographie, Photographisches Wochenblatt, 1879, p. 16. The majority consisted of portraits of vagrants failing to present documents and/or suspected of having committed a more serious offence than they were initially apprehended for. Hoerner, L., Ein königlich hannoversches « Verbrecheralbum » von 1860/65, Hannoversche Geschichtsblätter 1980, 34, pp. (Ed. 244-255. ), Wider das Leugnen und Verstellen. Regener (1999) ; Phillips, Haworth Booth, Squiers (1998) ; Green-Lewis (1996, p. 196 ff.) Was … The police's approach was still guided by popular notions about photography and by the practical gaze59 representing the experience of daily police work. Photography became more reliable and simple, and began to provide a general means of recording and representation for every conceivable need. He claimed that all the hopes of identifying recidivists by means of photographic registration had been in vain67. 60-102. 25 Shortly afterwards Eugene Beau, a mining engineer, proposed in the same journal to take portraits en face and en profile with a measure in the background. For a discussion see : Noiriel (1991, p. 158). The police and the courts wanted to know with whom they were dealing, and methods of identifying persons on wanted lists or apprehended persons, as well as ways of communicating descriptions, were matters of increasing concern. However, the official history of video surveillance began just over 100 years ago, when the Holloway prison began to use the "modern photographic monitoring" system. 783, Statement of the numbers of photographs of convicted criminals sent from the prisons of each county and borough to London ; costs incurred ; and, number of cases in which any have led to detection. : Wilhelm Schnuchel, 1899, tech. During the Reichstag debates, they unsuccessfully urged that persons arrested for political reasons should not be subjected to the police photographer because they were not « criminals, vagrants, rascals », for which this treatment was deemed absolutely appropriate, as the SPD member, Fischer, argued79. The Germans made another security camera breakthrough in 1942, when they d… Let’s start with Orwell. It improved the chances of identification, to a certain extent, and it was a form of symbolic apprehension of a person. The decision as to who was to be photographed followed a simple principle : the alleged dangerousness of an offender, as defined by various acts or orders. From that time, every person sentenced had to be photographed and the image sent to the Préfecture de Police. Beese, W., Zur Geschichte der Polizeiphotographie, Kriminalistik, 1964, 18, pp. The discourse which reshaped judicial photography changed by converging scientific, criminal, anthropological and medical photography into a universal instrument to construct and distinguish images of normal and aberrant people12. In the mid-nineteenth century, the majority of policemen conceived of criminals as rather immobile or moving only locally, a concept of criminal behaviour which Ave-Lallemant's younger colleagues would challenge some decades later. The question of why photography was applied comparatively late as an instrument of the criminal police was never raised. 37Furthermore, the ceremony of photographing a criminal became part of the penalty ; a part of the symbolic practices used to subject an apprehended person78. The history of « police photography » has been written either as a linear development from the 1850s on or as part of the history of the repressive institutions of the state culminating, in the 1890s, in a universal system of registration, classification, and identification7. Kleinere Mitteilungen - Polizei-Photographie, (1879, p. 16). 468.) After 1890, the search for distinctive « criminal » features in the complexion of criminals became less important. Criticism focused on the practice of giving tickets of leave to delinquents sentenced to penal servitude and the reformed prison system in general. The concept of the habitual criminal contributed to the growing importance of the police and prompted the administration to refine the system of registration and identification now under the auspices of the (criminal) police. For full treatment, see photography, technology of: Figure 3: Anon. At some prisons, e.g. Covert surveillance was made possible, because for the first time in history, a camera could be used without drawing any attention. In his 1939 classic “1984”, he envisioned a world under perpetual surveillance. This was a time when it was still common for glass plates to be used in cameras, and those that took roll film were thought of as miniatures. More than ten years later, the Prussian jurist, Karl Theodor Odebrecht, although an advocate of the introduction of photography into the court rooms, voiced a similar concern30. In theory, nobody apprehended for petty, familial, religious and political offences should be photographed61. 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